Association between Illness Perception and Emotional Status in Iranian Patients after Heart Transplantation
Background: Heart transplantation is a major procedure which imposes high emotional stress on patients. Illness perception (IP) is a psychological issue which affects psychological adjustment after transplantation. This study aimed to investigate the association between IP and emotional status in Iranian post-heart transplantation patients.
Methods: The present cross-sectional study, conducted between 2018 and 2019 in Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran, Iran, recruited 121 post-heart transplantation patients. IP was measured using the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (B-IPQ), and emotional status was measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. The association between IP and depression/anxiety was assessed.
Results: Men comprised 80.2% of the study population. The mean age of the participants was 43.9±12.95 years. Definite caseness for depression and anxiety was reported in 11.6% and 18.2% of the participants, respectively. The median score of IP was 55. The association between anxiety and IP in total IP and the 3 dimensions of IP was statically significant (P=0.015, P=0.018, P=0.002, and P=0.023 for the cognition, emotion, and understanding dimensions and the total IPQ, respectively). Additionally, the association between depression and IP was significant (P=0.001, P=0.029, and P=0.002 for the cognition and emotion dimensions and the total IPQ, correspondingly, except for the understanding dimension). Furthermore, lower levels of anxiety in the patients showed a greater impact on IP than did depression.
Conclusion: There was a significant association between IP and depression and anxiety in our study population. Therefore, the diagnosis and management of anxiety and depression in heart transplantation patients may improve IP. The cross-sectional design of the present study precluded an investigation of the causality between IP and emotional status.
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