The Journal of Tehran University Heart Center aims to publish the highest quality material, both clinical and scientific, on all aspects of cardiovascular Medicine. It includes articles related to research findings. Technical evaluations, and reviews. In addition, it provides a forum for the exchange of information on all aspects of Cardiovascular Medicine, including educational issues. “ the journal of Tehran University Heart Center” is an International, English language, peer reviewed journal concerned with Cardiovascular Medicine. It is an official Journal of the Cardiovascular Research Center of the Tehran University of Medical Sciences (in collaboration with the Iranian Society of Cardiac Surgeons) and is published quarterly.
Background: Silica exposure is detrimental to health and has, thus, been a global health concern. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of existing articles to assess the involvement of silica exposure in cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality.
Methods: Electronic databases including Web of Sciences, Scopus, PubMed, and Google Scholar were searched for eligible publication until December 2019. The pooled standard mortality ratio (SMR) and the 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to detect the association between silica exposure and CVD mortality.
Results: The pooled estimates of SMR indicated a nonsignificant association between silica exposure and CVD mortality (SMR: 1.26; 95% CI: 0.88-1.63). The subgroup analysis based on the type of CVD indicated a significant positive association between silica exposure and mortality from hypertensive heart disease (SMR: 2.45; 95% CI: 2.16 -2.74) and pulmonary heart disease (SMR: 4.03; 95% CI: 3.87-4.20).
Conclusion: This study confirmed that silica exposure is associated with an enhanced risk of mortality of hypertensive and pulmonary heart diseases. The verification of these results may have important effects on basic preventive strategies for health-care providers. Because of the mismatch in the silica exposure classification, some works in the literature were excluded. Also, the years of silica exposure may be important in CVD mortality. We suggest that these potential confounders be considered in future research.
Early Results of the Persian Registry of Cardiovascular Disease/Congenital Heart Disease (PROVE/CHD) in Isfahan
Background: In 2016, a prospective registry for pediatric patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) was established in Isfahan, Iran. Data on pediatric CHD in Iran are scant; accordingly, we aimed to report the early results of the Persian Registry Of cardioVascular diseasE (PROVE/CHD) Registry in Isfahan.
Methods: All patients with CHD and associated defects diagnosed by pediatric cardiologists were assessed via echocardiography for inclusion in the present study between late 2016 and August 2019. The participants’ sociodemographic characteristics, maternal history, birth history, medical history, current clinical presentations in the clinic or hospital, paraclinical data, cardiac diagnoses based on the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD-10), disease management plans, and medications were entered into a questionnaire by the subjects’ parents/legal custodians and physicians and then transferred to the PROVE/CHD Registry.
Results: The PROVE/CHD registry encompasses 1252 patients with CHD (49.9% male) at a mean age of 6.50±6.36 years. The most frequent cardiac diagnoses were ventricular septal defect (39.3%), atrial septal defect (29.7%), patent ductus arteriosus (25.4%), pulmonary stenosis (11.0%), tetralogy of Fallot (6.1%), coarctation of the aorta (5.4%), and aortic stenosis (5.1%), respectively. The most frequent interventions were patent ductus arteriosus closure (4.3%), atrial septal defect closure (3.6%), pulmonary valvuloplasty (2.2%), coarctation of the aorta angioplasty (1.9%), and ventricular septal defect closure (1.1%), correspondingly. The approximate corresponding rates of corrective and palliative surgeries were 32.0% and 13.1%. The corrective surgeries were mainly comprised of ventricular septal defect closure (7.8%), patent ductus arteriosus closure (7.3%), atrial septal defect closure (5.1%), and tetralogy of Fallot repair (3.8%), respectively. The palliative surgeries mainly consisted of the Glenn shunt (9.0%) and pulmonary artery banding (3.6%).
Conclusion: The PROVE/CHD Registry collects data on pediatric patients with CHD. The results of this registry can provide epidemiological data and a set of homogeneously defined cases for further studies.
Relationship between the Severity of Coronary Artery Disease and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Acute Coronary Syndrome: Based on Tehran Heart Center’s Data Registry
Background: Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is one of the main causes of mortality worldwide. We sought to evaluate the correlation between the severity of coronary artery disease (CAD) and conventional coronary artery risk factors in a large cohort of patients with ACS.
Methods: This study included all patients admitted to the coronary care unit with a diagnosis of ACS between 2003 and 2017. The patients were divided into 2 groups: 1) unstable angina and 2) myocardial infarction. The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of the risk factors and extension of coronary artery stenosis in patients with ACS according to the Gensini score.
Results: Of a total 40 319 patients who presented with ACS, 18 862 patients (mean age =60.4±11.14 y, male: 67.2%) underwent conventional coronary angiography and met our criteria to enter the final analysis. The median of the Gensini score was 50 (25–88) in the study population. The multivariable analysis showed that age, sex, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, family history, cigarette smoking, opium consumption, and myocardial infarction increased the risk of positive Gensini scores. All the aforementioned risk factors, except cigarette smoking and opium consumption, increased the severity of stenosis in those with positive Gensini scores. The strongest relationship was seen vis-à-vis myocardial infarction, sex, and diabetes mellitus.
Conclusion: Our findings suggest that age, sex, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, hypertension, family history, and myocardial infarction have significant effects on the severity of CAD. The obesity paradox in relation to CAD should be taken into consideration and needs further investigation in patients with ACS.
One-Year Outcome of Patients with Coronary Artery Ectasia Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: Clinical Implications and Question Marks
Background: Coronary artery ectasia (CAE) is a rare condition with unclear pathophysiology, optimal treatment, and prognosis. We aimed to determine the prognostic implications of CAE following coronary angioplasty.
Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study on 385 patients, including 87 subjects with CAE, who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) were considered to consist of mortality, nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI), repeated revascularization, and stroke.
Results: The mean age of the participants was 57.31±6.70 years. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that patients with diabetes, ST-segment–elevation MI at presentation, and high thrombus grades were more likely to have suboptimal post-PCI thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) flow. However, CAE was not a predictor of a decreased TIMI flow (OR: 1.46, 95% CI: 0.78–8.32; P=0.391). The Cox-regression model showed that CAE, the body mass index, and a family history of MI were risk factors for MACE, while short lesion lengths (<20 vs >20 mm) had an inverse relationship. The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for the prediction of MACE in the presence of CAE was 1.65 (95% CI: 1.08–4.78; P=0.391). All-cause mortality (HR: 1.69, 95% CI: 0.12–3.81; P=0.830) and nonfatal MI (HR: 1.03, 95% CI: 0.72–4.21; P=0.341) occurred similarly in the CAE and non-CAE groups. Conversely, CAE increased urgent repeat revascularization (HR: 2.40; 95% CI: 1.13–5.86; P=0.013).
Conclusion: Although CAE had no substantial short-term prognostic effects on post-PCI TIMI flow, considerable concerns regarding adverse outcomes emerged during our extended follow-up. Stringent follow-ups of these patients should be underscored due to the high likelihood of urgent revascularization.
Asymptomatic Giant Aneurysm of the Left Anterior Descending Coronary Artery: A Case Report and Review of the Literature
The most common cause of coronary artery aneurysms is atherosclerosis, which is associated with over 50% of all aneurysms diagnosed in adults. Although patients can be asymptomatic throughout their lives, giant coronary artery aneurysms can manifest themselves as myocardial infarction, aneurysmal rupture, and sudden cardiac death as well. Herein, we describe an asymptomatic patient with numerous risk factors and a positive cardiopulmonary exercise test who was admitted to the cardiology clinic for coronary angiography. A giant coronary artery aneurysm (3.0×2.0 cm in diameter) in the left anterior descending coronary artery and significant stenosis in both left and right coronary arteries were found. After discussing possible treatment options, the hospital’s heart team recommended the surgical resection of the aneurysm and double coronary artery bypass graft. Four years after the cardiac surgery, at the time of writing the current manuscript, the patient is still in good condition and with no symptoms.
Secondary Cardiac T-Cell Lymphoma Presenting with Syncope and Refractory Complete Atrioventricular Block: A Case Report
Cutaneous T-cell lymphomas constitute a rare category of non-Hodgkin lymphomas, which may involve the heart in the timeline of their natural course as an infrequent picture with a poor prognosis. Syncope, either due to outflow obstruction or conduction block, is also an uncommon presentation of cardiac metastasis. We herein describe a 35-year-old man, who presented with weight loss, dyspnea of 6 months’ duration, an indolent skin ulcer in the left flank, lower limb deep vein thrombosis (DVT), and recurrent syncope. He underwent implantation of a permanent pacemaker due to a complete heart block and received anticoagulants for the DVT. Skin biopsy demonstrated a T-cell lymphoma. The syncopal episodes ceased thereafter. Echocardiography and computed tomography scan revealed cardiac metastasis, which responded to systemic chemotherapy. In the first follow-up visit after 3 months, he was still pacemaker-dependent. However, the DVT was partially resolved, and the symptoms had disappeared.
Coronary artery fistulas constitute a rare anomaly defined as an abnormal communication between a coronary artery and a great vessel or any cardiac chamber. The majority of these fistulas arise from the right coronary artery and the left anterior descending coronary artery; the circumflex coronary artery is rarely involved. We present an unusual case of a coronary artery fistula in a middle-aged woman who presented with symptoms of heart failure and abnormal auscultation. Echocardiography and conventional and computed tomography angiography showed that the coronary fistula originated from the left circumflex coronary artery and drained majorly into the right ventricle. Given the complex anatomy of the fistula, we managed it surgically rather than percutaneously. There were no complications early after surgery and at 1 year’s follow-up.
Letter to the Editor
In this letter we have focused on two important issues, possible risk of MI in patients who are infected with SARS- Cov-2 and different therapeutic protocols that are currently applying for management of them which may be harmful in this group of patients with heart disorders who are infected with SARS- Cov-2 patients and must be replaced with safer ones. So, Calcineurin inhibitor and cyclosporine are more likely to have less cardiac side effects in these patients. Finally, it should be considered that Calcineurin inhibitor and cyclosporine require extensive clinical trial for evaluation of their effects in patients with heart disorders who are infected with SARS- Cov-2 patients.