The Journal of Tehran University Heart Center aims to publish the highest quality material, both clinical and scientific, on all aspects of cardiovascular Medicine. It includes articles related to research findings. Technical evaluations, and reviews. In addition, it provides a forum for the exchange of information on all aspects of Cardiovascular Medicine, including educational issues. “ the journal of Tehran University Heart Center” is an International, English language, peer reviewed journal concerned with Cardiovascular Medicine. It is an official Journal of the Cardiovascular Research Center of the Tehran University of Medical Sciences (in collaboration with the Iranian Society of Cardiac Surgeons) and is published quarterly.
Background: The superior type of sinus venosus atrial septal defect (SVASD) is a rare form of the atrial septal defect (ASD) in which the upper part of the atrial septum does not exist. The presence of other cardiac anomalies such as anomalous pulmonary venous connections has been reported in this type of congenital heart disease. This study aimed to assess the presence of the patent foramen ovale (PFO) in patients with the superior type of SVASD.
Methods: This retrospective case-control study on 387 patients, consisting of 187 patients with a definite SVASD and 200 patients with problems other than the ASD, was conducted in Rajaie Cardiovascular Medical and Research Center between February 2005 and July 2014. Seven patients with inadequate data were excluded from the analysis. The presence/absence of the PFO was also evaluated in the case and control groups.
Results: The analyses were performed on 182 male and 198 female patients at a mean age of 39.07±14.41 and 51.01±15.80 years in the case and control groups, respectively. The PFO was significantly more frequent in the patients with the superior type of SVASD than in those without the condition (P<0.001). The persistence of the left superior vena cava was seen in 34 out of 180 patients with SVASD and in 1 out of 200 patients without the condition (18.9% vs 0.5%; P<0.001).
Conclusion: This study was the first to highlight the coexistence of the PFO and the superior type of SVASD. Physiological, genetic, or fetal factors may play an important role in the association between the PFO and the SVASD.
Estimation of the 10-Year Risk of Cardiovascular Diseases: Using the SCORE, WHO/ISH, and Framingham Models in the Shahrekord Cohort Study in Southwestern Iran
Background: Predicting the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) helps the management of high-risk individuals by the health system. We sought to determine the 10-year risk of CVDs in the Shahrekord Cohort Study (SCS).
Methods: In this cross-sectional study based on the SCS in the southwest of Iran, the demographic, anthropometric, clinical, and laboratory data of 5152 persons recruited in the SCS by census method from 2016 to 2017 were used. R software was utilized to calculate the 10-year risk of CVDs according to the World Health Organization/International Society of Hypertension (WHO/ISH) chart, the Framingham Risk Score (FRS) model, and the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) model.
Results: The mean age of the participants was 49.49±9.40 years, and 50.3% of them were female. According to the WHO/ISH chart, 94.1% of the participants were in the low-risk class, 4.1% in the moderate-risk class, and 0.4% in the high-risk class. Based on the FRS model, 72.2% of the participants were in the low-risk class, 18% in the middle-risk class, and 9.8% in the high-risk class. On the basis of the SCORE model for low-risk areas, 55.3% of the participants were in the low-risk class, 39.6% in the moderate-risk class, and 5.1% in the high-risk class. The agreement concerning risk estimation between the models was approximately 70%.
Conclusion: The risk estimated in this study was higher than that in other similar studies. For monitoring risk trends over time, it is essential to nativize a valid risk function, including ethnicity and geographical characteristics, for the Iranian population.
Relationship between the Severity of Coronary Artery Disease and Catheter-Associated Urethral Stricture in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome
Background: Different arterial segments throughout the vascular system develop similar grades of atherosclerosis concomitantly. Urethral ischemia has been proposed as a cause of urethral stricture. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the relationship between coronary artery disease severity using a SYNTAX score and urethral stricture occurrence after urethral catheterization in patients with non–ST-segment-elevation acute coronary syndrome (ACS).
Methods: This retrospective study consisted of 306 men with urethral catheters that were diagnosed with ACS and underwent coronary angiography between January 2016 and January 2018 in Kars Kafkas University and Osmaniye Government Hospital, Turkey. Hospital records were reviewed to collect the follow-up data of the patients regarding the occurrence of urethral stricture after urethral catheterization. The study population was divided into 2 groups according to urethral stricture development, and both groups were compared statistically.
Results: SYNTAX scores were significantly higher in patients with urethral stricture than in those without urethral stricture (14.86±7.11 vs. 29.25±9.79; P<0.001). The SYNTAX score (OR=1.27; 95% CI: 1.16–1.39; P<0.001), diabetes, and serum albumin were found to be the independent predictors of urethral stricture. The receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that the cutoff value of the SYNTAX score for urethral stricture prediction was greater than 22.5, with 76.7% sensitivity and 85.1% specificity (AUC=0.88, 95% CI: 0.84–0.91; P<0.001).
Conclusion: Coronary artery disease severity graded according to the SYNTAX score is an independent predictor of urethral stricture occurrence in ACS patients with a urethral catheter inserted.
Left Ventricular Dimension after Mitral Valve Surgery in Rheumatic Mitral Stenosis: the Impact of Myocardial Fibrosis
Background: Patients with rheumatic mitral stenosis (MS) experience changes in left ventricular (LV) dimensions after mitral valve surgery. We sought to investigate changes in LV dimensional parameters after mitral valve surgery and find out whether the same changes occurred in different extents of myocardial fibrosis.
Methods: This prospective observational study comprised 43 patients with rheumatic MS planned for mitral valve surgery between October 2017 and April 2018 in National Cardiovascular Center Harapan Kita (NCCHK) Jakarta. All the patients underwent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging based on the late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) protocol for myocardial fibrosis assessment prior to surgery. The patients were classified according to the estimated fibrosis volume considered to influence hemodynamic performance (myocardial fibrosis <5% and myocardial fibrosis ≥5%). Serial transthoracic echocardiographic examinations before and after surgery were performed to detect changes in LV dimensional parameters.
Results: This study consisted of 31 (72.1%) women and 12 (27.9%) men at a mean age of 46±9 years. The LGE protocol revealed myocardial fibrosis of less than 5% in 32 (74.4%) patients. A significant increase was detected in the LV end-diastolic diameter postoperatively, specifically in the patients with myocardial fibrosis of less than 5% (44.0±4.8 mm vs 46.6±5.6 mm; P value=0.027). A similar significant increase was not found in the other group (45.0±6.6 mm vs 46.7±6.9 mm; P value=0.256). Other changes in echocardiographic parameters showed similar patterns in both groups.
Conclusion: Our patients with rheumatic MS who had myocardial fibrosis of less than 5% demonstrated better improvements in terms of increased preload. Myocardial fibrosis of less than 5% is associated with more favorable improvements in LV geometry.
Purulent Pericarditis with Cardiac Tamponade Secondary to Candida Albicans after Total Parenteral Nutrition: A Case Report
Purulent pericarditis is characterized by a purulent pericardial fluid, which usually originates from the extension of a nearby bacterial infection site or by blood dissemination. Candida species is a rare cause of pericarditis; and if not treated, it is extremely fatal. In this report, we describe a 54-year-old man who had esophagojejunostomy due to gastric adenocancer 2 months before his admission into our emergency department with dyspnea, orthopnea, chest pain, and somnolence. Physical and echocardiographic examinations revealed massive fibrinous pericardial effusion, causing pericardial tamponade. We performed urgent pericardiocentesis. The culture of the purulent pericardial fluid illustrated Candida albicans. There was no gastropericardial fistula after endoscopic and computed tomographic evaluations of the gastrointestinal tract. After receiving 1 month of antimicrobial treatment, the patient recovered completely. During his follow-up, he remained asymptomatic and had no pericardial fluid for 6 months. Our case indicates the possibility of the occurrence of purulent pericarditis with tamponade, secondary to the dissemination of Candida albicans from total parenteral nutrition after gastric carcinoma surgery without gastropericardial fistulae or anastomosis leak.
Endovascular Repair of a Common Carotid Pseudoaneurysm in a Patient with Behçet’s Disease: A Case Report and Review of Literature
Behçet’s disease (BD) is a multisystem inflammatory disorder. Physicians should be alerted to the possibility of BD in a patient with a carotid artery pseudoaneurysm and no clear predisposing factor such as neck trauma or surgery. Endovascular repair of carotid pseudoaneurysms is technically feasible with excellent midterm follow-up results. Administration of immunosuppressive therapy before endovascular intervention is mandatory to reduce the chance of vascular complications accompanied by BD.
A 40-year-old man presented with a painful and pulsatile neck mass with 2 episodes of transient ischemic attacks. The patient also complained of recurrent urogenital ulcers and aphthous lesions together with painful rashes. Ultrasonography and computed tomography angiography revealed 2 aneurysmal dilations in the left common carotid artery at the bifurcation level. He was referred to a rheumatologist, who made the diagnosis of BD. High-dose corticosteroids and cyclophosphamide were commenced. One week later, 2 overlapping self-expanding stent grafts were deployed. The final angiogram showed no residual endoleak, and the flow of the carotid and cerebral arteries was satisfactory. The patient was discharged with no neurological complications. Follow-up ultrasonography and computed tomography angiography 6 months later showed no endoleak, as well as significant shrinkage of the aneurysm sac.
Discordance between the Clinical Presentation and Morphology of Myocardial Infarction in a Patient with Acute post-Hemorrhagic Anemia
While atherosclerotic plaque disruption remains the hallmark of type 1 myocardial infarction (T1MI), multiple other mechanisms provoking myocardial supply/demand mismatch (eg, anemia and tachyarrhythmias) are recognized as the potential causes of type 2 myocardial infarction (T2MI). In clinical practice, angiography is underutilized in patients with MI that have typical T2MI triggers, although the presence of these triggers and various forms of atherosclerotic coronary artery disease is not mutually exclusive. We describe a 70-year-old man that developed MI during hospitalization for gastrointestinal bleeding. He was treated conservatively without angiography due to posthemorrhagic anemia, which is a recognized T2MI trigger, and subsequently developed refractory cardiogenic shock. Autopsy revealed atherothrombosis, which is characteristic of T1MI.
Catheter Ablation of Left Atrial Posterior Wall Tachycardia Guided by Electroanatomic Mapping in a Young Patient
Focal atrial tachycardias (ATs) arising from the left atrium (LA) most commonly originate from the ostium of the pulmonary vein, the superior mitral annulus, the body of the coronary sinus, the LA septum, and the LA appendage. Focal ATs originating from the posterior wall of the LA are extremely rare. A 34-year-old male patient presented to the cardiology outpatient clinic complaining of palpitation. Electrocardiography showed a tachycardia at a ventricular rate of 150 bpm and a narrow QRS complex. Therefore, an electrophysiological study was performed, which was consistent with an AT. The patient underwent an electrophysiological study in tachycardias with narrow QRS complexes. The diagnostic electrophysiological findings were consistent with an AT. The AT cycle length was found to be 405 ms with variability in the ventriculoatrial interval. Simultaneous LA anatomical and activation mapping was performed during the AT using a 3D electroanatomic mapping system (CARTO) and a quadripolar unidirectional irrigated tip catheter. The activation mapping revealed that the earliest endocardial activation site was at the posterior wall of the LA, where the local electrogram was 72 ms and 35 ms before the coronary sinus reference and the P-wave onset, respectively. The activation mapping also showed centrifugal spreading and mid-diastolic, fractionated signals on the posterior wall. Radiofrequency ablation was successfully performed with 30-watt power at the site of the earliest atrial activation, with a fractionated electrogram terminating the tachycardia. LA posterior ATs are a rare form of AT. The electroanatomic mapping method enables the accurate localization of the LA focal tachycardia, and a high success rate is achieved with ablation therapy.
A Systematic Review of the Instruments Used for Evaluating Causal Beliefs and Perceived Heart Risk Factors
Background: The etiologies and causal beliefs of heart disease are considered one of the 5 dimensions of health self-regulatory model. Thus, the present study aimed to review the literature and screen the appropriate tools for evaluating the causal beliefs and perceived heart risk factors (PHRFs).
Methods: The review samples encompassed all published articles from 1992 to March 2017. A systematic search was conducted across 6 databases: the Web of Science, Scopus, Medline, EBSCO, ProQuest, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar. The qualitative evaluation of the articles was examined using the checklists of the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) by 2 independent investigators. After the application of the criteria for inclusion in the study, 22 studies were obtained according to the PRISMA guidelines.
Results: A total of 10 504 (50.5% male) patients at an average age of 57.85±10.75 years participated in 22 studies under review. The results of the systematic review showed that 22 tools were available to measure PHRFs. The instruments were categorized into 4 groups of valid scales (6 studies), invalid questionnaires (6 studies), checklists (3 studies), and open-ended single items (7 studies). Only 23.2% of the measuring instruments were sufficiently valid.
Conclusion: The results of this systematic review showed that a limited number of valid tools were available to measure PHRFs. Considering the importance of studying cardiac patients’ perception of the etiology of disease and the paucity of standards and valid grading scales, it seems necessary to design and provide tools with broader content that can cover all aspects of patients’ beliefs.
Hyperimmunoglobulin E Syndrome with Tortuous and Massively Dilated Thoracic and Abdominal Aorta: An Extremely Rare Cardiac Presentation of an Immunodeficiency Disease
A 21-year-old girl, a known case of hyperimmunoglobulin E syndrome (HIES), was referred for cardiologic evaluation. She was born to consanguineous parents. Her past medical history was significant for several episodes of pneumonia, otitis media, and cutaneous infections. She presented with generalized dermatitis, which was infected in some regions. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from the infected areas. Cutaneous human papillomavirus (HPV) infections were obvious as epidermodysplasia verruciformis on sun-exposed areas and giant warts on the anogenital regions. The laboratory studies revealed anemia, lymphopenia, and eosinophilia. The patient did not present any cardiac signs or symptoms, and her blood pressure was normal. Preemptive cardiac evaluations using echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed giant ascending (Figure A and Figure B; blue arrows), descending (Figure 1 and Figure 2; yellow arrows), and abdominal (Figure 3; yellow arrow) aortic tortuosity and dilation. The parasternal long-axis echocardiographic view (Figure 4) showed highly dilated aortic Valsalva sinus (blue line), sinotubular junction (red line), and aortic annulus (yellow line). As the whole length of the aorta was involved and surgical repair could not be performed, we started enalapril and recommended the patient to follow the conservative management.
HIES is a very rare type of primary immune deficiency.1 The disease is characterized by high serum immunoglobulin E
(IgE) levels; dermatologic, dental, and skeletal abnormalities; recurrent staphylococcal abscesses; and pneumonia. A serum level of IgE is routinely more than 2000 IU/mL.2 Vascular anomalies and their sequelae contribute to significant morbidity and mortality in patients with HIES. It is advisable that all patients with HIES be evaluated thoroughly for vascular involvement.
Letter to the Editor