The Burden of Cardiovascular Diseases in the Kurdistan Province, Iran, from 2011 through 2017
Background: Calculating the burden of diseases is essential for their monitoring. The burden of cardiovascular diseases in Kurdistan Province has not been reported. This study aimed at calculating the burden of cardiovascular diseases in the Kurdistan Province from 2011 through 2017.
Methods: In this cross-sectional study, incidence data were extracted from registration systems. The methods of the World Health Organization (WHO) were employed to calculate disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) of cardiovascular diseases in the Kurdistan Province. DALYs were calculated by summing the years of life lost (YLLs) and the years of life lived with disability (YLDs) for sex, age group, and year.
Results: The burden of cardiovascular diseases increased from 18569.1 DALYs in 2011 to 34929.8 DALYs in 2017. The highest increase and the largest decrease in DALY according to the all age-standardized DALYs index were related to acute myocardial infarction and heart failure in women, respectively. The highest DALYs in both sexes were in the age group of over 80 years.
Conclusion: The burden of cardiovascular diseases is increasing in the Iranian province of Kurdistan. It is, therefore, essential to implement appropriate and adequate interventions such as lifestyle modification, extensive screening, public education promotion, and operational plan development. We hope our results will aid decision-makers in performing urgent interventions.
2. Talaei M, Sarrafzadegan N, Sadeghi M, Oveisgharan S, Marshall T, Thomas GN, Iranipour R. Incidence of cardiovascular diseases in an Iranian population: the Isfahan Cohort Study. Arch Iran Med 2013;16:138-144.
3. Yusuf S, Hawken S, Ounpuu S, Dans T, Avezum A, Lanas F, McQueen M, Budaj A, Pais P, Varigos J, Lisheng L; INTERHEART Study Investigators. Effect of potentially modifiable risk factors associated with myocardial infarction in 52 countries (the INTERHEART study): case-control study. Lancet 2004;364:937-52.
4. Jahangiry L, Khosravi-Far L, Sarbakhsh P, Kousha A, EntezarMahdi R, Ponnet K. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its determinants among Iranian adults: evidence of IraPEN survey on a bi-ethnic population. Sci Rep 2019;9:7937.
5. GBD 2017 DALYs and HALE Collaborators. Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 359 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE) for 195 countries and territories, 1990-2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. Lancet 2018;392:1859-1922.
6. Mensah GA, Roth GA, Fuster V. The global burden of cardiovascular diseases and risk factors: 2020 and beyond. J Am Coll Cardiol 2019;74:2529-2532.
7. Liu S, Li Y, Zeng X, Wang H, Yin P, Wang L, Liu Y, Liu J, Qi J, Ran S, Yang S, Zhou M. Burden of cardiovascular diseases in China, 1990-2016: findings from the 2016 Global Burden of Disease Study. JAMA Cardiol 2019;4:342-352.
8. No authors listed. The World Health Organization MONICA Project (monitoring trends and determinants in cardiovascular disease): a major international collaboration. WHO MONICA Project Principal Investigators. J Clin Epidemiol 1988;41:105-114.
9. GBD 2016 Neurology Collaborators. Global, regional, and national burden of neurological disorders, 1990-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016. Lancet Neurol 2019;18:459-480.
10. Lopez AD, Murray CC. The global burden of disease, 1990-2020. Nat Med 1998;4:1241-1243.
11. Ock M, Lee JY, Oh IH, Park H, Yoon SJ, Jo MW. Disability weights measurement for 228 causes of disease in the Korean Burden of Disease Study 2012. J Korean Med Sci 2016;Suppl 2:S129-S138.
12. GBD 2015 DALYs and HALE Collaborators. Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 315 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE), 1990-2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015. Lancet 2016;388:1603-1658.
13. Global Burden of Cardiovascular Diseases Collaboration, Roth GA, Johnson CO, Abate KH, Abd-Allah F, Ahmed M, Alam K, Alam T, Alvis-Guzman N, Ansari H, Ärnlöv J, Atey TM, Awasthi A, Awoke T, Barac A, Bärnighausen T, Bedi N, Bennett D, Bensenor I, Biadgilign S, Castañeda-Orjuela C, Catalá-López F, Davletov K, Dharmaratne S, Ding EL, Dubey M, Faraon EJA, Farid T, Farvid MS, Feigin V, Fernandes J, Frostad J, Gebru A, Geleijnse JM, Gona PN, Griswold M, Hailu GB, Hankey GJ, Hassen HY, Havmoeller R, Hay S, Heckbert SR, Irvine CMS, James SL, Jara D, Kasaeian A, Khan AR, Khera S, Khoja AT, Khubchandani J, Kim D, Kolte D, Lal D, Larsson A, Linn S, Lotufo PA, Magdy Abd El Razek H, Mazidi M, Meier T, Mendoza W, Mensah GA, Meretoja A, Mezgebe HB, Mirrakhimov E, Mohammed S, Moran AE, Nguyen G, Nguyen M, Ong KL, Owolabi M, Pletcher M, Pourmalek F, Purcell CA, Qorbani M, Rahman M, Rai RK, Ram U, Reitsma MB, Renzaho AMN, Rios-Blancas MJ, Safiri S, Salomon JA, Sartorius B, Sepanlou SG, Shaikh MA, Silva D, Stranges S, Tabarés-Seisdedos R, Tadele Atnafu N, Thakur JS, Topor-Madry R, Truelsen T, Tuzcu EM, Tyrovolas S, Ukwaja KN, Vasankari T, Vlassov V, Vollset SE, Wakayo T, Weintraub R, Wolfe C, Workicho A, Xu G, Yadgir S, Yano Y, Yip P, Yonemoto N, Younis M, Yu C, Zaidi Z, Zaki MES, Zipkin B, Afshin A, Gakidou E, Lim SS, Mokdad AH, Naghavi M, Vos T, Murray CJL. The burden of cardiovascular diseases among US States, 1990-2016. JAMA Cardiol 2018;3:375-389.
14. Naghavi M, Abolhassani F, Pourmalek F, Lakeh M, Jafari N, Vaseghi S, Mahdavi Hezaveh N, Kazemeini H. The burden of disease and injury in Iran 2003. Popul Health Metr 2009;7:9.
15. GBD 2016 DALYs and HALE Collaborators. Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 333 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE) for 195 countries and territories, 1990-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016. Lancet 2017;390:1260-1344.
16. Yusuf S, Reddy S, Ounpuu S, Anand S. Global burden of cardiovascular diseases: part I: general considerations, the epidemiologic transition, risk factors, and impact of urbanization. Circulation 2001;104:2746-2753.
17. Yusuf S, Reddy S, Ounpuu S, Anand S. Global burden of cardiovascular diseases: Part II: variations in cardiovascular disease by specific ethnic groups and geographic regions and prevention strategies. Circulation 2001;104:2855-2864.
18. Lopez AD, Murray CC. The global burden of disease, 1990-2020. Nat Med 1998;4:1241-1243.
19. Murray CJ, Lopez AD. Global mortality, disability, and the contribution of risk factors: Global Burden of Disease Study. Lancet 1997;349:1436-1442.
20. GBD 2016 Risk Factors Collaborators. Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 84 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks, 1990-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016. Lancet 2017;390:1345-1422.
21. Fathollahi S, Saeedi Moghaddam S, Rezaei N, Jafari A, Peykari N, Haghshenas R, Shams-Beyranvand M, Damerchilu B, Mehregan A, Khezrian M, Hasan M, Momen Nia Rankohi E, Darman M, Moghisi A, Farzadfar F. Prevalence of behavioural risk factors for road-traffic injuries among the Iranian population: findings from STEPs 2016. Int J Epidemiol 2019;48:1187-1196.
22. Gouveia M, Ascenção R, Fiorentino F, Costa J, Caldeira D, Broeiro-Gonçalves P, Fonseca C, Borges M. The current and future burden of heart failure in Portugal. ESC Heart Fail 2019;6:254-261.
23. Ponikowski P, Anker SD, AlHabib KF, Cowie MR, Force TL, Hu S, Jaarsma T, Krum H, Rastogi V, Rohde LE, Samal UC, Shimokawa H, Budi Siswanto B, Sliwa K, Filippatos G. Heart failure: preventing disease and death worldwide. ESC Heart Fail 2014;1:4-25.
24. Sheikhattari P, Stephenson R, Assasi N, Eftekhar H, Zamani Q, Maleki B, Kiabayan H. Child maltreatment among school children in the Kurdistan Province, Iran. Child Abuse Negl 2006;30:231-245.
|Issue||Vol 16 No 2 (2021): J Teh Univ Heart Ctr|
|Cardiovascular diseases Incidence Iran|
|Rights and permissions|
|This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.|