Impact of Self-efficacy Strategies Education on Self-care Behaviors among Heart Failure Patients
Background: Self-efficacy in self-care behaviors is an effective framework for measuring patients’ degree of ability to perform self-care behaviors that significantly affect their recovery process and quality of life. This study was designed to investigate the effects of education based on self-efficacy strategies on self-care behaviors in heart failure patients.
Methods: A semi-experimental study was conducted on 80 heart failure patients divided into 2 equal groups of test and control. The intervention group received three 60-minute practical and theoretical training sessions based on self-care and self-efficacy strategies, while the control group received the usual care services. Self-care behaviors and self-efficacy were evaluated before training, shortly after training, and 3 months after the training program using the Sullivan self-efficacy questionnaire for heart failure patients and the European self-care behaviors questionnaires.
Results: The mean age of the patients was 55.00±8.48 and 51.61±8.51 years in the intervention and control groups, respectively. Women comprised 73.7% (n=59) of the study population. The mean score for the self-care and self-efficacy questionnaires in the experimental group was 23.50±6.58 and 18.57±6.64, correspondingly, before the intervention, which increased to 42.64±6.74 (P<0.014) and 32.29±7.06 (P<0.001), respectively, shortly after the intervention. A significant improvement also occurred at 3 months’ follow-up (P<0.001). Self-care behaviors also revealed a positive correlation with self-efficacy shortly after the intervention (r=0.82, P<0.001) and 3 months after the intervention (r=0.85, P<0.001).
Conclusion: The implementation of educational interventions based on self-efficacy strategies could have positive effects on health-promoting behaviors among heart failure patients.
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