Vol 14 No 1 (2019): J Teh Univ Heart Ctr

Original Article(s)

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    Background: Cardiovascular events are the leading cause of mortality and are highly associated with lifestyle. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD) and its major risk factors in the western Iranian city of Borujerd.
    Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 801 subjects older than 35 years of age, recruited via cluster sampling in Borujerd. The diagnosis of CAD was based on the positive results of Rose Angina Questionnaire, Minnesota coding, or prior history of CAD. Then, the risk factors were measured by biochemistry and relevant laboratory examinations, or data extraction from the subjects’ history.
    Results: The study sample consisted of 412 men and 389 women at a mean age of 54.82±12.11 years. The prevalence of risk factors including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, smoking, and obesity was 38.2%, 17.4%, 64%, 23.2%, and 22.8%, respectively. Based on the criteria, 19.1% and 31.7% of the CAD cases were definite and probable, respectively. Furthermore, 12.5% had definite signs and symptoms of CAD, and 5.4% had positive Rose Angina Questionnaire outcomes.
    Conclusion: The current study demonstrated the distribution of CAD in the Iranian city of Borujerd and it was demonstrated that obesity and smoking are the most common risk factors, respectively.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 172 | views: 879 | pages: 6-11

    Background: Cardiac involvement, as one of the life-threatening manifestations of systemic sclerosis (SSc), is chiefly caused by collagen fiber deposition in the myocardium, which subsequently leads to conduction abnormalities. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the prevalence and clinical significance of bundle branch blocks (BBBs) and the fragmented QRS complex (fQRS) in Iranian patients with SSc.
    Methods: Forty-one patients with SSc were enrolled from the outpatient SSc clinic of Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, between October 2016 and February 2017. Twelve-lead ECG was obtained and interpreted for BBBs and the fQRS. To adjust for the confounding effects of non–SSc-related cardiovascular risk factors, we calculated the Framingham risk score to estimate the risk of cardiovascular diseases. The associations between the studied conduction abnormalities and SSc cutaneous subtypes; disease duration; and the Medsger SSc severity scale of cutaneous, pulmonary, and vascular involvements were also analyzed.
    Results: The study population consisted of 41 Iranian patients with SSc at a mean age of 47.48±11.57 years (82.9% female). The prevalence of BBBs and the fQRS was 26.8% and 36.6%, respectively. The fQRS was associated with the limited cutaneous SSc subtype (OR: 0.100, 95%CI: 0.018–0.553, and P=0.028). BBBs and the fQRS were not associated with either the Framingham risk score or the rest of the clinicodemographic variables.
    Conclusion:  BBBs and the fQRS were more prevalent in our patients with SSc, without any association with the involvement of the other organs. These findings may suggest the independent pathophysiology of cardiac involvement in SSc.

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    Background: Mitral stenosis tends to worsen during pregnancy because of the increase in the cardiac output and the heart rate. In nonresponders to medical therapy, percutaneous transluminal mitral commissurotomy (PTMC) may be performed when there is a suitable valvular anatomy. In this study, we aimed to investigate the clinical and fetal outcomes of pregnant women with mitral stenosis who underwent PTMC.
    Methods: Thirty-one patients undergoing PTMC during pregnancy were enrolled in this study. The mitral valve area (MVA), the transmitral valve mean gradient (MVMG), and the severity of mitral regurgitation were assessed pre- and postprocedurally by transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography. The radiation time was measured during the procedure. The patients were followed up during pregnancy, and the neonates were monitored for weight, height, the head circumference, the birth Apgar score, and the adverse effects of radiation for at least 12 months.
    Results: PTMC was successfully performed on 29 (93.5%) patients. No maternal death or pulmonary edema was reported. The mean MVA significantly increased (from 0.73±0.17 cm2 to 1.28±0.24 cm2; P<0.001), and the mean MVMG significantly decreased (from 19.62±5.91 mmHg to 8.90±4.73 mmHg; P<0.001) after the procedure. A significant decrease in the systolic pulmonary artery pressure was also detected. Mitral regurgitation did not increase in severity in 16 (51.6%) patients. There was no significant relationship between the Apgar score, weight, height, and the head circumference at birth and at the radiation time.
    Conclusion:  In our series, PTMC during pregnancy was a safe and effective procedure. Lowering the radiation time with low frame-count techniques confers a significant decrease in radiation-related complications.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 170 | views: 979 | pages: 18-27

    Background: Performing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) in a timely fashion is a crucial part of the management of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). We aimed to evaluate the contributing factors to and the etiologies of a prolonged door-to-device (D2D) time.
    Methods:  In 2016, the D2D time was measured in all patients who were treated with PPCI at Tehran Hear Center. The major causes of a prolonged D2D time (>90 min) were determined. The second phase was then started in 2017 by focusing on the determined causes, and direct feedback was given to anyone having contributed to the delayed D2D time. The D2D time was compared between these 2 years.
    Results: The mean age of the patients was 59.54±11.82 years, and 82.2% of them were men. The median D2D time decreased from 55 minutes (IQR25-75%: 40–82) in 2016 to 46 minutes (IQR25-75%: 34–70) in 2017 (P<0.001). In the first year, 79.8% of the patients had a D2D time of below 90 minutes; the figure rose to 84.1% of the patients in the second year (P=0.017). The first cause of a prolonged D2D time was missed ST-elevation in the first electrocardiogram by physician or nurse (8.4% of the cases). Along with a declining rate of missed STE to 6.7%, the median D2D time in the missed patients also decreased from 205 minutes to 177 minutes (P=0.011). The rate of ambulance arrival increased from 10.2% to 20.7% of the cases, and the median D2D time also declined from 45 (IQR25-75%: 34–55) to 34 (IQR25-75%: 25–55) in these patients (P<0.001).
    Conclusion: Even in the setting of a 24/7 on-site interventionist in the hospital, the dispatch system and prehospital electrocardiograms, along with regular assessment and feedback, may improve the D2D time.

Case Report(s)

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    Prinzmetal’s angina occurs following spasms in a single or multiple vascular beds, resulting in a typical chest pain and an ST-segment elevation in electrocardiography (ECG). It can lead to life-threatening arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. We describe a 37-year-old woman who was admitted with a typical chest pain and hypotension. Her initial ECG showed an ST-segment elevation in the inferior and precordial leads. She was transferred to the catheterization unit, where coronary angiography illustrated multivessel spasms. The spasms were relieved with a nitroglycerin injection. She was discharged with stable hemodynamics 7 days later, and at 1 month’s follow-up, no recurrent attack was detected.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 119 | views: 778 | pages: 33-36

    Left ventricular aneurysms (LVAs) are characterized by a wide connection to the left ventricle and paradoxical systolic motions. Although patients with LVAs are usually asymptomatic, some may present with arrhythmias, heart failure, and even cardiac arrest. In this case report, we describe a 62-year-old male patient who presented to our emergency service with complaints of palpitation and shortness of breath of 2 hours’ duration. His blood pressure was 84/56 mm Hg, and he was in a confused state. An electrocardiogram revealed ventricular tachycardia (VT) with right bundle branch block and a ventricular rate of 188 bpm. The patient’s hemodynamic instability necessitated a direct current cardioversion, which restored the sinus rhythm. During the in-hospital course, he had numerous recurrent VT episodes despite treatment with intravenous amiodarone and magnesium sulfate as well as radiofrequency ablation. Upon consensus with a cardiovascular surgeon’s team, urgent surgery was performed due to the resistant VT episodes. The patient’s clinical course was uneventful, and he was discharged on the 11th postoperative day. We have been following up the patient for almost 1 year, during which he has not experienced palpitations or associated symptoms. Our case indicates that surgery may be a preferable treatment option for patients with heart failure and resistant VT related to LVAs.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 132 | views: 831 | pages: 37-39

    Superior mesenteric arteriovenous fistulae are rare. A 32-year-old woman presented with abdominal pain. The angiography showed that the superior mesenteric vein was aneurysmal. The patient underwent coil embolization, during which a balloon catheter was inflated before the fistula for the protection of coil migration with a high blood flow. After the balloon inflation, one 8-mm and two 7-mm coils were deployed at the fistula site. The final angiography showed successful embolization with no visualization of the fistula and the aneurysmal vein.